Systems to measure the P- and S- Wave velocities within a sample. AV sensors are generally used where pressures and load exceed those where bender elements can be used.
AV sensors are based on the same principle as bender elements but the piezoceramic elements are not exposed to the environment so they can be used at pressures up to 100MPa and loads up to 2MN. Sensors and sources are mounted on the pedestal and top cap or to the sides of the sample in some cases. Each sensor package contains a Compressional wave (P-Wave) element and two shear wave (S-Wave) elements. The Shear wave elements are set in orthogonal directions to allow two shear waves to be generated with different polarisation. This is important where samples may be cross-anisotropic or even fully anisotropic.
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